Wereldwijde Chrysanthemum productie

Onderstaan zie je een overzicht van de wereldwijde Chrysanten productie. Zoals ik die in de loop van der jaren heb kunnen inschatten. De landen met een rode kleur zijn niet UPOV landen, de blauwe landen hebben het UPOV verdrag getekend.

Land Stems
Canada 30.000.000
Verenigde Staten 35.000.000
Mexico 300.000.000
Costa Rica 20.000.000
Colombia 900.000.000
Ecuador 15.000.000
Nederland 1.500.000.000
Verenigd Koninkrijk 35.000.000
Polen 20.000.000
Spanje 120.000.000
Italie 300.000.000
Zuid Afrika 100.000.000
China ?????
Korea 20.000.000
Japan 2.100.000
Malaysia 92.000.000
Australie 20.000.000
Nieuw Zeeland 4.000.000

world chrysanthemum production 2007

Bovenstaande file is in MS visio beschikbaar, indien je intresse hebt of updates wilt maken mail me.

World Chrysanthemum Production

Below you can find a table of the worldwide Chrysanthemum production or as the Americans say it pompoms. I have made this predictions based on the fact that I have visited many chrysanthemum production companies and farms all over the world. Countries colored red are none UPOV countries the blue countries have UPOV signed the UPOV treaty. If you want to know the amount in American bunches dive by 4.7, to have a reasonable accurate amount.

Country Stems
Canada 30.000.000
United States 35.000.000
Mexico 300.000.000
Costa Rica 20.000.000
Colombia 900.000.000
Ecuador 15.000.000
Netherlands Holland 1.500.000.000
United Kingdom 35.000.000
Poland 20.000.000
Spain 120.000.000
Italy 300.000.000
South Africa 100.000.000
China ?????
Korea 20.000.000
Japan 2.100.000
Malaysia 92.000.000
Australia 20.000.000
New Zealand 4.000.000

world chrysanthemum production 2007

Above file is created in MS Visio are you interested in updating the file let me know I email you a copy.

Dutch in Horticulture

It is impossible to be around the floriculture industry for any length of time without running into the Dutch. They are everywhere. Hang around with growers all over the world or visit flower trade shows in America, Africa, Asia, or Europe and you will always hear some Dutch accent somewhere in the room. This is the industry of the Dutch which we have exported to the rest of the world.

The Netherlands got into business over 400 years ago. In those days the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the West India Company (WIC)dominated the world trade in spices, furs, sugar and coffee. Turkey was an important trading partner for the Dutch and flowers native to Turkey made their way to European gardeners through Turkish-Dutch trade routes.

In 1593 the first collection of tulip bulbs arrived in Holland. A sultan in Turkey gave some tulip bulbs to the Austrian Ambassador, which gave it to his friend and scientist Carlos Clusius. Soon after Carlos Clusius got the tulip bulbs Carlos became chairman of Hortus Botanicus in Leiden (see also) and so Holland had there first tulips flowering in 1594. The Dutch liked the tulip and soon after that started the tulip mania, wealthy Dutch merchants outbid each other at auctions to make a quick profit. At the peak of the tulip mania, tulip bulbs could be traded for for the price of a canal house. In early 1637 the Dutch tulip market crashed, the bidding of a pound of tulips stared at 1250 Guilders. No one bid. Despite of the crash of the market the Dutch keep on working with their flowers and keep on dominating the flower world until today. Even though cut flower growing has been moving out of Holland for over a century first to the United States and later to countries around the equator, the Dutch still export new varieties, growing techniques and greenhouse technology. The Dutch also own the most patents on flower varieties around the world and setting worldwide prices trough the auctions.

Erik_malaysia

In 2001 Erik van Berkum joined the flower industry and dedicated all his working time to chrysanthemum breeding and sales, Erik has been doing this work untill November 2007. Erik van Berkum has sold all chrysanthemum varieties on a global scale, for which Erik has to travel ed at least 100 days a year. In those 7 years Erik van Berkum has visited 35 countries. If you are interested in his whole career have a look at the Curriculum of Erik van Berkum. You can also have a look at Eriks’ world map for the places he has visited during his life.

Erik van Berkum Chrysanthemum things

Chrysanthemum breeding variety selection shift to production areas

Variety_Selection_shift_to_production_areas

Breeding

The interaction between breeders and growers in major production areas can turn once redundant codes into gold. Redundant codes being all the individual plants assigned a number by a breeder in the initial stages of a breeding program, but which never actually achieve the final status of a commercial variety.

by Erik van Berkum

How often in the past have breeders chosen to throw away a coded plant during the selection phase because they were unsuitable for the domestic market? This number can rise into the thousands since, on an annual basis, of 2,000 plants produced and denoted by a breeding code, it is not unusual that only 5 to 10 coded plants ultimately achieve the status of a commercial variety. How often does a variety selected and tested locally fail to perform to the same potential under different climatic conditions? Are all growers around the world benefiting from the new selections and improved varieties? The internationalization of the cut flower industry does not allow breeders to ignore these questions. Coded plants not matching the demands of one region, for example, can be very suitable and profitable in other parts of the world. How can a breeder make sure selections categorized as waste are not gold to growers elsewhere?

Erik_van_Berkum_and_his_colleagues

The answers to these different questions have encouraged a higher level of breeder-grower interaction in recent years. As an example, the chrysanthemum breeding activities of Deliflor in the Netherlands have been extended to create a testing program in the most important chrysanthemum markets. Major production areas are Japan, Holland and Colombia while the worlds three major consumption markets are Europe, Japan and the United States. Commercial testing in Italy, Malaysia and Japan is complemented by the company’s own testing facilities in Medelli­n, Colombia. The latter location delivering varieties with a consumer preference in the United States and suited to the growing conditions in the Medelli­n climate.

Speed of improvement
Mother plants produced in El Carmen de Viboral, nearby Medellin, are used to source the disease free plant material for the growers; a major point of concern for the Colombian farms is that cuttings are not hygienic and can be full of diseases. A strict hygiene protocol is necessary; commercial varieties are tested twice a year for viroid and each selection has their own set of gloves, so that if one selection becomes contaminated the diseases will not be spread by the workers during the picking of the cuttings. The traditional supply of in vitro material from Holland has disadvantages of being slow and more difficult to handle compared to the locally grown cuttings. For these imported plants, over a year is required before it is in full production. Allowing for the time period required for the farm to propagate this material, the breeders will have made other new selections and improvements to existing varieties. This system can mean that the farms are more or less three years behind in the cultivation of the latest varieties, compared to growers that buy cuttings directly.

pick cuttings

The Dutch breeders make at least four visits a year to Colombia to see how the work is progressing and to remain familiar with the market. Trials undertaken close to the growers own farms does permit easy contact. The visits to the farms are a means of quick feedback about the performance of varieties. Any problems arising with a particular variety can be recognised and reacted to quickly. During these visits, there is also an opportunity to show and ask the grower’s opinion about potential new varieties. Advice is given to the growers if they specifically ask technical production questions, but otherwise this remains the responsibility of the many good technical engineers in the region.

A necessary boost
On a business level, the last three years have not been easy for the farms in Colombia. The quality of living has made enormous progress, but the appreciation of the peso with respect to the dollar is giving the farms some serious problems. The necessary investments are not commonly being made and instead of investing in new production methods and automation, many farms are forced to cut costs, with many negative aspects for the cut flower sector in general.

Flores sylvestres

Despite these developments, the future is very positive for the Colombian flower sector. America will keep on buying flowers and Colombia will keep on producing them. Air freight and labour costs will be the two biggest challenges to keep under control. Fortunately, the sea transport routes from Cartagena to Miami are relatively short, which offers many possibilities to save on transport costs. To save on labour costs, Colombian growers will have to invest in automation. In this respect, Colombian growers can learn a lot from the Dutch growers, but they will have to keep in mind the different circumstances in Colombia and search for practical solutions together.

From the online version of FloraCulture International July 2007 Page 34, 35

this post was earlier posted on: http://www.maripositas.org/index.php?title=Variety_selections_shift_to_production_areas