Innovative Systems in the Horticultural Industry

“Using Combined Heat and Power will save 20-30% on energy bills”

Interview Erik van Berkum

Interview with Mr. Erik van Berkum, General Manager of Hoogendoorn America Inc.
Hoogendoorn is known as the most innovative supplier of process automation systems in the horticultural industry. For 40 years, the company has been striving towards the optimal greenhouse climate, increasing crop yields, and managing costs and risks in glasshouse horticulture.

Peppers Today talked to Mr. Erik van Berkum, General Manager of Hoogendoorn America Inc., a subsidiary of the Hoogendoorn Group in Holland, about the evolution of the company and the development of Combined Heat and Power (CHP). This is a method that enables growers—and pepper and tomato growers in particular—to cut costs by creating heat, electricity and CO2 for utilisation in an optimal environment for plants, helping these to photosynthesis.

Q. How has Hoogendoorn evolved since its beginnings?
A. Over the course of 40 years, we have learned to look at every project in a unique and individual way, regardless of its size. With innovation as our prime focus, and by integrating the latest techniques and insights into professional management, suddenly the most complex of processes appear to be surprisingly simple. We call this Growth Management. And it lies at the heart of all our services, people and products.

Q. What are the origins of Hoogendoorn America and what is your position in the company?
A. Hoogendoorn America is a subsidiary of the Hoogendoorn Group in Holland and it services the American and Asian markets. I am responsible for general management activities at Hoogendoorn America Inc. My professional career in the international horticulture industry spans more than 10 years. Within the international industry I have marketing and sales experience in more than 35 countries, enabling Hoogendoorn America Inc. to develop international market focus. Currently, I am vertically focused on market development and sales opportunities in Mexico and other parts of South America, with support activities in all business units of North America.

Q. Combined Heat and Power has been developed for many years in order to increase production profitability. How has CHP evolved recently?
A. The principles of Combined Heat and Power have not changed in recent years. Electricity is produced by burning natural gas, and the CO2 and heat can be put back into the greenhouse. The electricity can be used for lighting or it can be returned to the national grid. Using CHP will save 20-30% on energy bills.

Over the last few years CHP installations have become more efficient, and in the future we will probably see more CHP in combination with biofuels, thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels.

Q. What other projects or concepts focused on increasing sustainability in greenhouses already exist in the market at the moment?
A. Besides CHP, there are other concepts of more sustainable greenhouses including Semi-Closed Greenhouses, LED Lighting, Thermal Heating and Energy-Producing Greenhouses, such as ELKAS, the Greenhouse without Gas, ZoWa Greenhouse and Desert Greenhouse. The good thing about there being so many initiatives is that we will progress, and one of the concepts or a combination of concepts will probably be the new mainstream system in the future.

Q. What do you think are the main reasons for the success of CHP in the Netherlands?
A. The main reason for CHP’s success in the Netherlands is the fact that growers have been able to supply electricity to the grid and produce electricity much more efficiently than the big power plants. This has given them a significant additional income or a reduction in production costs, however you may wish to define it.

“CHP is used for growers’ own energy consumption in America”

Q. And how has CHP evolved in other parts of the globe?
A. In the rest of the world, governments and electricity companies are not opening up their power grids, so growers are unable to return electricity to the grid to create additional income.
Therefore, CHP is used for growers’ own energy consumption in America. The trend in North America is more towards burning other types of fuel, such as wood chips or waste pallets. These cheaper natural resources help growers to reduce their energy bill, and their production is also more environmentally friendly, if the total CO2 balance is considered.

Q. What are the advantages for growers and other players in the sector of introducing CHP into greenhouses and glasshouses?
A. Obviously, an advantage for growers is the reduction of their energy bill. Moreover, they acquire greater social responsibility as growers by using a production method that is more environmentally friendly.
They also become more progressive growers by looking for innovative ways to improve the sector as a whole. Consumers benefit from the fact that the cost price is lower thanks to the energy saving.

Q. What is the attitude of growers in America and Mexico towards this form of production?
A. Not all American growers have embraced CHP, due to the lack of a financial incentive; I see a bigger trend in America towards biofuels, waste fuels and thermal energy.
In the case of Mexican growers, their energy bill is relatively low due to the fact they have better climate conditions, so it is not such a high priority for them. It makes more sense for them to capture the heat during the day and release it during the night.

Q. How do you foresee the future market for your products?
A. As companies get bigger, processes become more complex and people have to be more productive. We at Hoogendoorn are convinced that the future of horticulture involves more automation. Internet will become an important factor in the future, since it takes away the responsibility of having onsite software, which is always more difficult to control than our own web servers. Using the internet also eliminates a lot of hardware problems, because the grower will have less hardware, while we will have more. The hardware that the growers have should become easier, and easier hardware means that we require fewer specialists travelling about to keep the systems running. At Hoogendoorn we always say that an electrician or a general IT technician should be able to plug and play and keep the systems in the greenhouse running.


Products and services supplied by Hoogendoorn America Inc.

Hoogendoorn America is a total solutions provider; together with its partners, the company supplies the entire infrastructure for a greenhouse. Hoogendoorn’s own product line is centred on the iSii climate computers, which automate energy management.

Energy management

The Hoogendoorn iSii climate computer makes it possible to control and monitor the energy services of a glasshouse operation, as well as to register and administer electricity purchases and sales. The Energy Management program ensures optimum coordination of heat and CO2 demand in the greenhouse and the supplies available from the boiler house or CHP installation.

Water management

Irrigation control is essential to crops. Sprinkler irrigation, ebb and flow installations and dripper systems can all be regulated using the Hoogendoorn iSii water management program. Hoogendoorn also has the solution for irrigating plants on movable systems in the greenhouse.

Plant monitoring with Letsgrow i4All

While the climate computer efficiently organises the climate, we still don’t know how the plants actually feel in the greenhouse. This is why Hoogendoorn has developed the i4All. The Letsgrow i4All is a mobile measuring frame, which comes with the following sensors installed: temperature meter, electronic RH and CO2 meter, PAR sensor and Plant Temperature Camera. The sensor measures how the plant is actually feeling in the greenhouse, and with this knowledge the climate in the greenhouse can be fine-tuned. For example, if the plant is stressed due to high temperatures or to high light intensity, the stomata close. When the stomata are closed, it does not make sense to give plants a lot of CO2, because there is no photosynthesis.

The same applies to fertiliser: if plants are stressed, they do not absorb fertiliser, so why make this investment? The Letsgrow i4All enables growers to make these decisions, because they know how the plants feel. A further advantage of the i4All is that it is mobile and therefore it can be sited anywhere in the greenhouse without cable problems. The i4All works wirelessly with Hoogendoorn’s web server via a GPRS connection, better known as mobile internet via a SIM card. A big plus of the Letsgrow website is that clients do not have to install software on their computer; it all runs from Hoogendoorn’s website, where the company can take care of maintenance, so this is a powerful and a very convenient solution.

Nomad human resources in the Greenhouse

Besides taking care of the plants, Hoogendoorn also takes care of people via Nomad, a unique recording system for wireless and paperless inputting, processing and presentation of all nursery data. With this recording system, growers can analyse yields, picking performance per employee, pests and diseases, fertiliser stocks, and gas and electricity consumption. This solution saves the grower a lot of time, and by analysing the Nomad data, it is possible to find areas where improvements can be made. If the Nomad systems are connected to Letsgrow, data can also be analysed with reference to the data of other production facilities, thereby enhancing the possibilities for making greater improvements and more extensive comparisons in the day-to-day management of a greenhouse.

Syngenta Seeds Vegetables Peppers Today – October 2009

Greenhouse systems built from 2020 will be energy-neutral

Elkas greenhouse

A very good article from Peppers today in which I collaborated.

With fossil fuels predicted to become scarcer and more expensive worldwide, energy costs are clearly an increasing concern for growers. This is particularly true for pepper growers in the Netherlands, since their greenhouses require energy to control the temperature, and if their peppers are to be of the highest quality, they must be cultivated under the right temperature conditions.

Production costs in greenhouses have been shown to represent around 78% of the total chain costs, and energy consumption is the main component of these costs, according to the Greenergy project, a Collective Research project funded by the European Commission.

Therefore, Dutch pepper growers have recognized a need for reliable, up-to-date information, as they become more and more involved in energy production.

The importance of greenhouses in Dutch agriculture
The role played by greenhouses in the agricultural scenario might appear to be relatively insignificant, insofar as they account for no more than 0.5% of the total area of agricultural land in the Netherlands. Their average size is also relatively small when compared with the average size of other farms (1.5 ha compared with 44 ha for the average dairy farm). However, greenhouses play a very important role in the economy and represent high sources of income.

Energy costs are especially relevant for Dutch pepper growers, since the area devoted to pepper crops in the Netherlands has increased considerably in the last few years. Whereas in the early 1990s peppers covered an area of just 700 hectares, today they have overtaken the tomato as the most important vegetable crop, reaching an area of 1,250 hectares in 2007, according to the US National Agricultural Statistics Service. Meanwhile, peppers in glasshouses accounted for 25% of the total horticultural area under glass in 2008, with 1,184.02 hectares.

Pepper surface under glass in the Netherlands 2008

Source: CBS, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Den Haag/Heerlen

Cogeneration: a Dutch success story
One of the solutions successfully adopted by farmers in the Netherlands to reduce costs in greenhouses is the Combined Heat and Power system (CHP, or WKK, from the Dutch warmte kracht koppeling). The implementation of CHP, also known as Cogeneration, can save the grower 20 to 30% on energy bills, according to Mr. Erik Van Berkum, General Manager of Hoogendoorn America Inc, a subsidiary of the Hoogendoorn Group in Holland, one of the most innovative suppliers of process automation systems in the horticultural industry.

Since CHP was first implemented in 1987 as a means of providing electricity for growing lights, the concept has changed little: electricity is produced by burning fuel, the greenhouse is fed with the CO2 and the heat, and the remaining electricity is used in the greenhouse itself for light or it is returned to the national grid.

Nico van Ruiten, Chairman of LTO Glaskracht, an organization representing greenhouse growers, made the following observations to the digital Made in Holland magazine, published by the bureau of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs: “In the 1980s, gas-fired combined heat and power installations were introduced, which produced not only electricity and heat, but also CO2, which plants need to grow. If you blow CO2 into the greenhouse, the crops will grow faster. All of these techniques have been developed further in the meantime, which is entirely logical, because energy is one of the major cost items for all growers in the Netherlands and abroad. Energy-saving measures are therefore not only beneficial for the environment, but also extremely important for growers’ profit margins.”

Key factors in the success of CHP in Dutch greenhouses
There are many key factors in the successful implementation of Combined Heat and Power by Dutch farmers over the last 20 years.

Heating while using energy.- No other industry can take such advantage of the energy generated by fuel while using the remaining heat to regulate the temperature of the agricultural and horticultural holding, exporting the energy surplus back to the grid or using it in the greenhouse itself.

Taking advantage of CO2 .- The advantages of using CO2 to increase profitability while reducing emissions make CHP a sustainable solution for minimizing the human impact on the environment.

Government role.- The system would not be sufficiently solid, if government agricultural policy were not focused on supporting the greenhouse sector, with the avowed objective of contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by saving energy, while producing energy at the same time. The “Green label” subsidy is also a fillip for greenhouses in the Netherlands, because by fulfilling certain requirements, the grower can gain access to certain incentives, such as the energy investment or Energy Tax (ET) deduction, or a reduction in the levy on energy consumption for glasshouse horticulture.

Electricity scenario.- The liberalization of electricity generation and gas supply, together with a favorable electricity and gas price ratio and a good infrastructure, are also key factors in the success of CHP in the Netherlands.

CHP usage has increased to reach about 90% of farms in the Netherlands in 2009, according to Mr. Rik Lootens from Syngenta Seeds Vegetables Company.

As for the future of CHP in Dutch greenhouses, Mr. Jan Korff, who is on the Netherlands Member Committee of the World Energy Council, predicted a “flourishing future for CHP in the Netherlands” in the presentation that he made entitled “CHP in The Netherlands – Opportunities and Threats” at Euroheat&Power, 6th Industry and Utility Forum, held in Slovenia in November 2007.

Among the threats to CHP, Korff highlighted the low level of transparency regarding the network capacity; the lack of a system of milestones and cancellation fees; the lack of pro-active behavior; and the need for a stable approach on the part of the government.

Elkas Greenhouse

Global energy saving programme for greenhouses in the Netherlands
With the aim of reducing energy costs in greenhouses while minimizing the impact on the environment, the Dutch government and the glasshouse industry in the Netherlands have set up some ambitious programme with a cluster of goals related with energy, crop protection and fertilization for the glasshouse industry.

One of these projects currently in progress is the Energy-Producing Greenhouse Transition Programme. Launched in 2006, the ultimate objective of this project is to reach the point where greenhouse systems built from 2020 are energy-neutral, i.e. they produce the same amount of energy as they consume.

In addition to the CHP system, the Dutch agricultural sector is focusing its energy-saving efforts on the use of other sources of energy:

– Solar energy.- Using greenhouses as “solar collectors” that can then supply energy to third parties or in combination with semi-closed greenhouses. This solar energy can be applied in greenhouses in two ways, according to the specific energy needs: by implementing a thermal solar installation as support for heating, or by installing a photovoltaic solar plant in order to produce electricity. One of the Dutch projects that uses solar energy is Elkas (“electricity-producing greenhouse” in Dutch). Elkas is the first electricity-producing greenhouse in the world based on solar energy alone, and the concept has a lot of potential, since the plans are that it will be economically profitable within the next 5 years.

– Biomass.- Using manure and farm waste as fuel for energy production yields a considerable advantage in terms of cost compared with fossil fuels. However, there is still an important disadvantage: the initial investment in this kind of boiler is higher, so this must be balanced against the annual saving in fuel.

– Geothermal heat.- Using the heat of the deep layers of the earth in greenhouses. This can be done by conducting natural hot water through the greenhouse in order to increase the temperature inside the facilities, or it is also possible to use the heat by means of a heat-conductor fluid, which is placed in a pipe system previously laid under the soil. Vleestomaat Company greenhouses are an example of this use of warm water from the ground to grow tomatoes; this method saves the growers 80% of the energy normally used, 5 million m3 of natural gas and more than 10,000 tons of C02 per year.

Moreover, Dutch growers in the horticultural industry are seeking to adapt production to the changing conditions. For instance, “they are considering the development of the floating greenhouse, an ingenious solution to the problems of a limited land surface area and the growing dependence on water in built-up areas,” the Made in Holland magazine reports.

Gerda Verburg, the Dutch Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, is also confident about the future of energy-producing greenhouses: “I can see opportunities for the energy-producing greenhouse in urban areas in particular, where homes and other properties have to be heated. In those areas, there is not only a major demand for intensive food production, but also good potential for bringing energy supply and energy demand into line with one another.”

With respect to the future of the sector, Mr. Dick Kramp, Marketing Program Manager for GE Energy’s Jenbacher gas engines, highlighted the increasing trend towards local production, optimising local resources and minimizing environmental impact:

“In my opinion, the future will involve growing vegetables locally to avoid transportation costs and C02 emission. Production close to the consumer will be the future trend. The establishment of green ports next to big cities. Dutch growers will found foreign establishments to be a part of this new development. The first example is the Thanet Earth project in Kent, where 3 Dutch growers grow peppers, tomatoes and cucumbers to serve the UK market. This green port will be a model of production, logistics and energy, drawing on state-of-the-art technologies from the Netherlands.”

[checklist icon=”” iconcolor=”” circle=”” circlecolor=”” size=”small” class=”” id=””]
[li_item icon=””]Energy Optimization in European Greenhouses, Greenergy 6th framework programme[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””][/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]Facts and Figures on the Dutch Agri-Sector 2008, from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]Holland trade, EVD, Agency for International Business and Cooperation[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]The Dutch Outlook regarding the European Agricultural Policy 2020 (September 2008), Dutch Ministry of Agriculture[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]Energy savings and efficiency in greenhouses, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]CHP in the Netherlands, presentation by Jan Korff[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]CBS, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Den Haag/Heerlen 2-7-2009[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]Dutch agriculture and horticulture with a glance at South Korea, Report 2009-039[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]The Netherlands, Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2007,[/li_item]

[checklist icon=”” iconcolor=”” circle=”” circlecolor=”” size=”small” class=”” id=””]
[li_item icon=””]Dick Kramp, Marketing Program Manager, GE Energy, Jenbacher gas engines, at the Greenergy summit, April 2009[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]Erik Van Berkum, General Manager for Hoogendoorn America Inc.[/li_item]
[li_item icon=””]Rik Lootens, Syngenta Seeds Vegetables[/li_item]

Syngenta Peppers Today Newsletter 16 – July 2009

Greenhouse innovations and future production technics

Over the last years you see a lot of new greenhouse models on the market which should enable us to produce sustainable food without using extensively natural resources. In the photos below you see some concept currently tested or in full production in the horticultural produce sector.

You have another concept, inform me I am more than happy to add them.

Solar Greenhouse
Solar Greenhouse
Solar Greenhouse
Solar Greenhouse
Sun Wind Greenhouse
Sun Wind Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Seawater Greenhouse
Seawater Greenhouse
Seawater Greenhouse
Seawater Greenhouse
Flowdeck Greenhouse
Flowdeck Greenhouse
Flowdeck Greenhouse
Flowdeck Greenhouse
Sunenergy Greenhouse
Sunenergy Greenhouse
Plant Factory
Plant Factory
Village Farms Gates production Principles
Village Farms Gates production Principles
Thanet Earth
Thanet Eart
Greenergy Energy balance of a greenhouse
Greenergy Tomato greenhouse

ELKAS Electricity Producing Greenhouse

Elkas (the electricity supplying greenhouse) shows how to convert solar energy into electricity. In designing energy generating greenhouses the emphasis still lies in systems that supply low-grade forms of energy (i.e. warmth). The electricity generating greenhouse is aimed at catching the radiation that is not being used for crop growth and converting it in high grade power.

ELKAS Energy producing greenhouseThe inteligent solution for this greenhouse is an integrated filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar energy delivery system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue to cope with the combination of high global radiation and high outdoor temperatures. As a first measure, the spectral selective cover material, which prevents the entrance of NIR radiation, is investigated.

The special spectral selective properties of these materials have to block up to 50% of the solar energy outside the greenhouse, which will reduce the needed cooling capacity.

The second measure is the integration of a solar energy system. When the NIR reflecting coating is designed as a parabolic or circular shaped reflector integrated in the greenhouse, the reflected solar energy of a PV cell in the focus point delivers electric energy. With a ray tracing computer program the geometry of the reflector was optimally designed with respect to the maximum power level. The PV or TPV cells mounted in the focal point require cooling due to the high heat load of the concentrated radiation (concentration factor of 40-120).

Or to say it simple PAR light (growth light) enters the greenhouse and the NIR light is reflected via the special foil to produce electricity. The foil to produce the electricity contains a few hundreds very thin layers, during tests the cheap silicium cells where found the most efficient solar cells. Because the sun is moving during the day and during the season the solar pannels are moveable and will move with the sun.

So far the results are promising and there was decided to built a research greenhouse which has been finished construction by the end of June 2008. This is the first electricity producing greenhouse in the world but so far it’s a small greenhouse of only 10m2 by 10m2. According to researcher Piet Sonneveld the concept has a lot of potential and it will be economically profitable within the next 5 years. In potential the ELKAS only needs 10% of a conventional Greenhouse. The electricity production of the ELKAS should be around 0.4 MW / Ha. Because the smart foil is keeping the excessive heating outside the climate inside the greenhouse for the plants is much better.

Policy of the Dutch governments is aimed at sustainable glasshouse horticulture in terms of economy, environment and labour conditions. In the Covenant Glasshouse Horticulture and Environment, government and glasshouse industry have set ambitious goals for energy, crop protection and fertilization for glasshouse industry in 2010.
The goals for energy saving are linked to the Kyoto protocol on the reduction of CO2 emission by setting a maximum for the glasshouse industry CO2 emission to 6.5 Mton at the actual area of 10.500 ha, which will be increased to 7.1 Mton if the area increases to 11.500 ha.

The ambition is that greenhouse systems built from 2020 on will compensate equally energy consumption by energy production. Assimilation lighting has proven to be a powerful tool to increase production and quality, especially in winter.

Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhosue
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse
Elkas Greenhouse

Partners in development of ELKAS

  • Wageningen UR
  • Plant Research International B.V. WUR
  • Bosman kassenbouw
  • EOS regulation center/Novem (financing)
  • Dutch ministry of Agriculture (financing)
  • Product Board of Horticulture (financing)
  • Stichting Energy Leverende kas (financing)